This article describes a basic installation and configuration of OpenVPNsuitable for private and small business use.
For more detailed information, please see the OpenVPN 2. Additionally it has support for dynamic IP addresses and DHCPscalability to hundreds or thousands of users, and portability to most major OS platforms. Overall, it aims to offer many of the key features of IPSec but with a relatively lightweight footprint.
Install the openvpn package, which provides both server and client mode. Users of custom kernel should make sure to enable the tun module:. Read Kernel modules for more information. To connect to a VPN service provided by a third party, most of the following can most likely be ignored, especially regarding server setup. One should use the provider certificates and instructions, see Category:VPN providers for examples that can be adapted to other providers. Alternatively, as of OpenVPN 2.
See the OpenVPN documentation for details. OpenVPN is an extremely versatile piece of software and many configurations are possible, in fact machines can be both servers and clients.
With the release of v2. The OpenVPN package comes with a collection of example configuration files for different purposes. The sample server and client configuration files make an ideal starting point for a basic OpenVPN setup with the following features:.
For more advanced configurations, please see the openvpn 8 man page and the OpenVPN documentation. If TLS with elliptic curves is used, specify dh none and ecdh-curve secpr1. DH parameters file is not used when using elliptic curves. Starting from OpenVPN 2. Otherwise the server would fail to recognize the curve type and possibly use an incompatible one, resulting in authentication errors. See this article.
One can have multiple, concurrent instances of OpenVPN running on the same box.
At a minimum, the parallel servers need to be running on different ports. A simple setup directs traffic connecting in to a separate IP pool. More advanced setups are beyond the scope of this guide. Be sure to setup the corresponding entries in the firewall, see the relevant sections in Firewall configuration.
Using the options user nobody and group nobody in the configuration file makes OpenVPN drop its root privileges after establishing the connection.
The downside is that upon VPN disconnect the daemon is unable to delete its set network routes again.I am running into a problem and would like to know a quick fix to that. Currently ip route default GW has got the values: default via I would like to change the metric value of the usb0 interface temporarily lower than the eth0 to be chosen for the outgoing traffic.
How can I achieve this? How long did you try? Try again, maybe invoke google. Embarrassing is the hollow reply posts that gets people nowhere but a count up for you The one-liner would be "ip route change You can reverse the calls add first, then del - should bear no harm either.
It fails on Intel chips, too. But anyway, why would setting network route metrics be dependent on hardware? Doesn't routing happen in the kernel anyway? I've never digged into it but it looks like some ioctl fails due to some blocked? It's probably not HW related at all then.
Software or general kernel bug then. I've never promised a one-liner, neither did "Into the Pit", that's h. Nothing is too wonderful to be true, if it be consistent with the laws of nature -- Michael Faraday Sometimes it is the people no one can imagine anything of who do the things no one can imagine.
This is considered help vampirism and not how things work. You get assistance on learning or figuring things, but don't get your problems solve, because you're simply too lazy to figure yourself. And don't tell me that you got the hint, really tried, failed and asked back - within 50 minutes, while just googling for "ip route change metric" virtually spams the answers in your face.
Atom topic feed. Arch Linux. Index Rules Search Register Login. You are not logged in. Topics: Active Unanswered. Thanks Last edited by h. Re: [Resolved]How to change the default route metric could be easily done with the ip route. Re: [Resolved]How to change the default route metric I couldn't and I appreciate you to share that "easily" one line code here Re: [Resolved]How to change the default route metric How long did you try?To create this article, 13 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time.
This article has been viewedtimes. Learn more Your default gateway is the IP address of your router. Typically this is automatically detected by your operating system during installation, but you may need to change it. This is especially true if you have multiple network adapters or routers on the network.
Open a terminal window. Type "sudo route delete default gw IP Adapter " and press Enter. Type "sudo route add default gw IP Adapter " and press Enter. Update the gateway IP address for the adapter. Save your changes and exit the editor. Did this summary help you? Yes No. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker.
Article Summary. Co-authored by 13 contributors Community of editors, researchers, and specialists April 2, Part 1 of Open the Terminal. View your current default gateway.Joinsubscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. In some specific types of environments, you might find it useful to add a static route to the routing table in Windows.
A routing table dictates where all packets go when they leave a system—whether that system is a physical router or a PC.
Most routers—including the one built into your Windows PC—use some form of dynamic routing, where the router is capable of selecting the best place to forward packets based on information it gets from other routers. If any of those apply to you, read on. Before you get started adding routes, it may be helpful to view the routing table first.
You can do pretty much everything in PowerShell that you can do in Command Prompt, plus a lot of other useful things. The metric cost value is just a cost that is relative to other costs in the table and is used when Windows decides between multiple routes that could reach the same destination.
So, for example, if you wanted to add a route specifying that all traffic bound for the When you add a static route, by default it only lasts until the next time you start Windows.
The reason for this is that many companies use a coordinated list of static routes that gets updated fairly often. Rather than adding and updating all those routes on every machine, they just distribute a batch script file that adds the newest routes during Windows startup.
This keeps the routing table relatively uncluttered. You could certainly use the batch script method yourself. A persistent route stays in place even when Windows starts up. Using the same command we used earlier, you could make that route persistent with the following modification:. Of course, there will come a time you might want to remove a static route from your table. All you have to do is type a command using the following syntax:. So, to delete the route we created earlier with the destination network Yes, using static routes is a bit esoteric when it comes to managing most home and small business networks.
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Skip to content. How-To Geek is where you turn when you want experts to explain technology. Since we launched inour articles have been read more than 1 billion times. Want to know more?If you have a new installation of Linux System, I recommend you read any of below articles depending on the Linux distribution you are running:.
A static route can be defined as a pre-determined path that network information must follow to reach a specific host or network. The static route is normally important for traffic that must pass through an encrypted VPN tunnel or traffic that should take a specific route for reasons of cost or security. Mostly default gateway is for any and all traffic which is not destined for the local network and for which no preferred route is specified in the routing table. The default gateway is traditionally a dedicated network router.
You can configure static route by various methods, one of them being manually specifying the route on network configuration script.
Other methods include using commands such as:. We are going to talk about different ways to set static route. Both temporarily and setting up the permanent static route. Adding static route with route add command. The syntax is:. NOTE: Subsequent static routes must be numbered sequentially, and must not skip any values. Checking static routes:. Sign in. Log into your account. Forgot your password? Password recovery. Recover your password. Get help. You can support us by downloading this article as PDF from the Link below.
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Benefits of Tax Calculator Modified date: July 17, Samsung Galaxy S10 review and features Modified date: May 30, Modified date: June 12, Best Books for Learning Node. Best Kubernetes Study books Modified date: April 26, Install Kubernetes Cluster on Ubuntu To strengthen its security it should not run any services available to the outside world. Towards the LAN, run only gateway specific services; especially do not run httpd, ftpd, samba, nfsd, etc.
This article does not attempt to show how to set up a shared connection between two machines using cross-over cables. For a simple internet sharing solution, see Internet sharing. Systemd automatically chooses unique interface names for all your interfaces.
These are persistent and will not change when you reboot. However you might want to rename your interfaces e. Throughout the following sections of this guide, the convention stated below is used:. You may change the assigned names of your devices via a configuration file using Systemd-networkd described in Systemd-networkd Renaming an interface or by a udev -rule following Network configuration Change interface name.
Due to the example-rich nature of this article, you might want to choose the names above. Now you will need to configure the network interfaces. The best way to do so, is using netctl profiles. You will need to create two profiles. Using rp-pppoe, we can connect an ADSL modem to the extern0 interface of the firewall and have Arch manage the connection.
Make sure to put the modem in bridged mode though either half-bridge or RFCotherwise, the modem will act as a router too.
Install the rp-pppoe package. It should be noted that if you use only PPPoE to connect to the internet i. For the interface configuration, choose the interface that connects to the modem.
If you only connect to the internet through PPPoE, this will probably be extern0. Fill in the rest of the fields with your ISP information. See the PPPoE section in the netctl. It was specifically designed for small sites. Install it with the dnsmasq package. Dnsmasq needs to be configured to be a DHCP server with a configuration similar to the following:.
Somewhere below, you will notice you can also add "static" DHCP leases, i. This way, whenever the computer requests a new lease, it will get the same IP. That is very useful for network servers with a DNS record.
Now start and enable the dnsmasq. First of all, we need to allow packets to hop from one network interface to the other.
For this one needs to have packet forwarding enabled in kernel via sysctl 8. See Internet sharing Enable packet forwarding for details. Assuming net. Hence, it is necessary to translate the IP addresses between the outward facing network and the subnet used locally. The technique is called masquerading. For this task, we are going to use iptables :.
If you're connecting via PPPoE, you'll also need to clamp mss to pmtu in order the prevent fragmentation from happening:. Start and enable iptables. The router should now be fully functional and route your traffic.Routes represent the quickest or shortest path along roads to visit stops or point locations. They can be basic point-to-point routes visited in the order you specify or in the order that minimizes overall travel time or distance. This tutorial first shows how to use a local network dataset and then shows how to use the online service.
The data for this tutorial is available for download. A network dataset is an intelligent model of the road system. It contains not only the location and attributes of roads, but also information about how roads relate to one another, such as which roads are connected, which turns between connected roads are allowed or prohibited, and other information that affects what travel paths are possible and how long travel takes.
The route solver references the network dataset to determine the shortest path between stops. If you're using your own data, no online credits are used, but you need to associate your network dataset with the project. In this set of steps, add a network dataset to the map. The Add Folder Connection dialog box appears.
Next, add one of the network datasets contained within the folder to the map. The network dataset is added to the Contents pane as well as to the map. By default, network datasets built with traffic data show traffic conditions for the current time when they are added to the map. This network dataset includes historical traffic, so you are seeing typical traffic conditions for the current time and day of the week.
Not all roads in this network dataset include traffic, so only the ones that do are shown by default. The area covered by the network dataset is where you can perform network analyses. Viewing the network dataset isn't required to perform an analysis, so next, you will hide it.
A route layer provides the structure and properties needed to set up and solve route problems. It also contains the results after solving. The Route layer is added to the Contents pane. It includes several sublayers that hold the inputs and outputs of the analysis.
The route is referencing the San Francisco network dataset because the network was in Contents when the route layer was created. You will use these controls to define the route you want to generate. The Route tab appears only when you select a route layer in the Contents pane. Also, if you have multiple route layers present, each has its own tab. Think of a stop as a point you need to visit along a journey.
Tutorial: Create routes
The route solver finds the optimal path through the network connecting the stops you designate. You could use a feature class of existing stops for your analysis by clicking the Import Stops button ; however, in this exercise, you'll draw your stops directly on the map. The Create Features pane appears, showing a list of layers that can be edited. The Attributes pane appears. Tip: The Route tab only appears when you select a route layer in the Contents pane. The results show the fastest path through the network connecting all the stops you created.
The stop symbol on the map will show the sequence number in the order the stops were entered and visited by the route solver. The route you created shows the fastest path through the network that obeys the constraints built into your network dataset. The network may, for instance, have information about speed limits, one-way streets, forbidden turns, and live or historical traffic data. You can modify the behavior of the network by editing your network dataset and also make some temporary changes to your analysis using barriers.
A barrier is useful for modeling temporary road closures. In this exercise, you'll draw a polygon barrier to simulate an area of road closures and observe how your route changes.